You might want to consider updating your browser.
This site looks better and operates more smoothly on newer browsers that support current standards.
The Textmapping Project
A resource for teachers improving reading comprehension skills instruction
Classroom Teachers: We receive emails from teachers like you every day. They link to us from their classroom pages - like this from Share to Learn and this from Classroom 2.0. And they send us lots of comments as well. We love to hear from you! Here's how you can contact us.
London Metropolitan University: Centre for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning.
Georgia Department of Education: Framework for English Language Arts, Fifth Grade.
Infinite Thinking Machine: first segment, first episode!
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development: in Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 9-12, by Carol Ann Tomlinson and Cindy A. Strickland.
Creative Commons: Featured Content of the Week, 8/23/03
National Council of Teachers of English: Hot Topics Spotlight
University of North Carolina School of Education: lesson plan
State of Michigan: MiCLASS training program for middle school teachers
Syracuse University: Tutoring and Study Center
and many more...
"Although the courts have considered and ruled upon the fair use doctrine over and over again, no real definition of the concept has ever emerged. Indeed, since the doctrine is an equitable rule of reason, no generally applicable definition is possible, and each case raising the question must be decided on its own facts. On the other hand, the courts have evolved a set of criteria which, though in no case definitive or determinative, provide some gauge for balancing the equities."
Source: House Report, Introductory Discussion on Section 107 (Title 17, Section 107, U.S.Code), as printed in U.S. Patent Office Circular 21, Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians [http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf].
The information on this web page is provided on an "as-is" basis, without warranty of any kind. The author disclaims liability for damages resulting from its use. The author is not an attorney and does not provide legal services. Use of the information on this page does not create an attorney-client relationship.
"If I photocopy a copyrighted work to make a scroll, am I breaking the law?"
Background Information: scrolls | mapping | making
making scrolls: http://www.textmapping.org/making.html
Copying to Make Scrolls: In addition to what is clearly allowed, we believe that copying to make scrolls is a fair use as long as the following two conditions are met:
Copying Entire Works: As long as both of the above conditions (see Copying to Make Scrolls, above) are met, we believe that copying entire copyrighted works constitutes use of the work and is allowed under fair use. While an objection can be made based upon amount and substantiality, we believe that the two conditions listed above are sufficient to overcome that objection.
Examples of copying which we think meet both of the above conditions include the following:
Usability: The primary reason for using scrolls (as opposed to paged media such as books) is that, for some instructional and reading situtations, scrolls offer a higher level of usability. This transformative use of a copyrighted work (i.e., making copies to make a scroll, in order to make a copyrighted work more usable) goes directly to the question of use of the work. Scrolls are more usable because they enable the reader to see, at a glance, an entire text as an unbroken whole, and they enable teachers to model comprehension strategies more clearly, explicitly, and in greater detail than is possible when the most that can be seen of a text is whatever will fit on two facing pages or on a computer screen. The following links provide more information on these points:
Accessibility: Paged media presents significant accessibility barriers for a great many learning disabled and struggling readers. This transformative use of a copyrighted work (i.e., making copies to make a scroll, in order to make a copyrighted work more accessible) goes directly to the question of use of the work. Scrolls are accessible to a wide range of learning abilities and learning styles. For more on the scrolls and accessibility, see:
Section 107 identifies four criteria for determining fair use:
Clearly Allowed: One source of guidance regarding the conditions under which copying is clearly allowed is the 1976 Agreement on Guidelines for Classroom Copying in Not-For-Profit Educational Institutions with respect to Books and Periodicals, the full text of which is printed on pp.7-8 of U.S. Patent Office Circular 21, Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians [http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ21.pdf].
This agreement creates a legal safe-harbor for educators who follow its guidelines. Other than that, it has no legal force (it is part of the legislative record, but was not incorporated by Congress into the legal code). This is an important point because the agreement, which was crafted by a coalition of groups representing various interests within the publishing industry, presents a more limited view of fair use than suggested by the criteria in the legal code. In recognition of this, the agreement states that its guidelines are "...not intended to limit the types of copying permitted under the standards of fair use.... There may be instances in which copying which does not fall within the guidelines may nonetheless be permitted under the criteria of fair use."
The term "paged media" is used here to refer to books, magazines, newspapers, and electronic text, all of which break text into discrete pages or (in the case of the electronic text) screen-fulls or views. Scrolls, by comparison, display text as a continuous whole which is fully-visible in a single view.
Unless otherwise noted, the content on this web page is © 2004-2007 R. David Middlebrook, and may be freely used for non-commercial purposes under the terms of the CCPL.Use of the information on this web page constitutes acceptance of the terms of the CCPL and agreement to adhere to the Guidelines for Using Our Content. For more information, see our copyright page.We hope that you share our concerns about plagiarism [http://www.ilstu.edu/%7Eddhesse/wpa/positions/WPAplagiarism.pdf]. Please provide proper attribution.. Please support this site.
Questions? Comments?: .
Copyright © 2004-2007 R. David Middlebrook